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When Blockchains Go Down: Why Crypto Outages Are on the Rise



Berniesanders (not to be confused with former presidential candidate and Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders) is an institution on blockchain-based blogging platform Steemit.

Steemit allows content creators to earn crypto – at least, crypto that’s native to the Steem blockchain, of which there are three – for popular posts. While recent successes include waffle recipes, romantic fiction and crypto punditry, berniesanders gets a pretty steady paycheck (about $30 at a time) for his single sentence, self-described “shit posts.”

A recent sampling: “Are you having fun? I’m having fun.” ($60), “I’m on a boat!” ($31), “Show me your shoes.” ($30) and “How many comments can a shit post get?” ($263 and 319 comments).

But for a few hours on September 17, the Steemit community was deprived of berniesanders’ wisdom.

On that day, Steemit became unavailable when Steem suffered an outage and stopped adding new blocks. The blockchain and the apps on top of it had gone dark.

Steem’s outage, the company explained, was related to an upcoming hard fork update. The code for the fork was being run by some nodes in advance, and as such, these nodes split off onto an incompatible chain when certain safeguards failed. The nodes accidentally hard forked the network early, and as a result, the nodes couldn’t come to consensus on new blocks.

“The blockchain was the piece that was halted in this case,” Ned Scott, the founder and CEO of Steemit, told CoinDesk. “But it caused a ripple effect, a domino effect on all the apps built on top.”

For the Steem blockchain, that’s 400 applications, according to Scott.

And several of those applications likely had confused, worried and sometimes angry users wondering why they couldn’t interact with their favorite blockchain-based tools. Case in point, once the Steemit network began functioning normally again, berniesanders returned with a post tagged “testingshitsteem,” “amateurshitdevs” and “deadchain.”

That’s perhaps a bit harsh.

Sure enough, other users weren’t quite so critical. A Steemit user going by “alphasteem” (she of the waffle recipes) said:

“I guess that’s the way things work with new technology.”

The only problem is, that’s not how things are supposed to work with this particular piece of new technology. One of the most frequently cited advantages of blockchain networks is that they suffer zero downtime – or close to it.

For example, there’s a website dedicated to tracking bitcoin’s uptime since its launch in January 2009: 99.992559576 percent, at the time of writing. And the Ethereum Foundation describes the network’s applications as running “exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third-party interference.”

In recent months, though, major blockchain networks have seen downtime, and the trend has some people wondering, WTF?

More outages

The incident on the Steem network is not the only recent example of a blockchain going down (in fact, it’s not the only time Steem has gone down in recent months).

In March, Neo’s blockchain was temporarily halted. This can happen, the project’s senior research and development manager Malcolm Lerider initially explained, “when a consensus node gets disconnected during the consensus.”

In response to pointed criticism – to the effect that, if just one of only seven consensus nodes on the Neo network can pause the chain by going offline, Neo is highly vulnerable – Lerider stepped that response back a bit. He said Neo could handle the loss of a consensus node, and that the circumstances leading to the incident were more complicated.

A few months later, the EOS blockchain also saw the production of new blocks halted for nearly five hours.

According to Thomas Cox, who at that time was the vice president of product at Block.One, the company behind the EOS protocol (he’s since left the company), the deferred transactions weren’t being checked correctly, which led to a “weird state” and “prevented further blocks from being created.”

This incident occurred just a couple of days after the EOS network went live in June.

Federated and delegated

These examples raise the question of why, nearly a decade into the existence of blockchains, the promise of zero downtime is starting to show cracks.

The answer may have to do with the emergence of new ways of achieving consensus: the process by which all the participants in a blockchain system come to agreement on the state of the network.

In bitcoin, ethereum and other proof-of-work (PoW) systems, the way consensus is achieved makes it extremely unlikely that a network will come to a halt – even if a high number of nodes drop off.

Speaking to this, Riccardo Spagni, project lead at monero (a proof-of-work cryptocurrency), told CoinDesk:

“PoW can handle things like the network partitioning and coming back together after some time. It’s incredibly robust.”

In contrast, a newer method – versions of which Neo, EOS and Steem all employ – designates a certain set of specialized nodes to determine the state of the network. Rather than “mining,” these nodes come to agreement through quicker and less energy-intensive processes, enabling faster and cheaper transactions than bitcoin or ethereum.

These systems are broadly known as federated or delegated protocols, with more specific labels applying based on the exact cryptographic methods involved: delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (dBFT) for Neo and delegated proof-of -stake (DPoS) for EOS and Steem.

Neo’s Lerider disputed the idea that federated blockchains are more susceptible to downtime in general. “Different consensus algorithms may be used in a federated chain,” he told CoinDesk, and “to know which ones that have potential to go down,” it’s necessary to look at the specific implementation.

Broadly, though, delegated consensus has brought something new to cryptocurrency: the potential to scale enough to accommodate use cases that only centralized providers were previously able to handle. For instance, Steem and EOS can support millions of transactions per day, according to the website Block’tivity.

Yet, at the same time, these new protocols have reintroduced a foible of centralized providers to the world of blockchain: downtime. When key nodes in a federated system go down or fall out of sync, the entire network can grind to a halt.

Accessibility or consistency?

That’s not to say these systems are necessarily inferior to traditional proof-of-work, however.

There is an important tradeoff at work, according to Eric Wall, blockchain and cryptocurrency lead at the Swedish fintech firm Cinnober.

“All distributed systems are fundamentally limited by the CAP theorem,” he told CoinDesk.

According to this theorem, which is often cited in discussions of blockchain networks, a given system can only optimize for two of three characteristics: consistency, availability and partition tolerance (hence the acronym “CAP”).

Although, in reality, the range of choices is narrower. Partition tolerance – the ability to run a blockchain over a network that loses some messages, as the internet does – is “non-negotiable,” said Wall. So engineers can either favor accessibility, as in bitcoin and ethereum; or favor consistency, as in EOS, Steem and Neo.

Wall described what these options look like in practical terms, saying, “Many federated systems will simply halt in contingency situations, often requiring manual intervention to start running again. Bitcoin, on the other hand, will typically not halt, but instead bitcoin forks into two blockchains for a short period of time a couple of times a month.”

In other words, from the user’s perspective, the bitcoin network may never go down, but there’s no guarantee that a user hasn’t found themselves on a fork that will eventually be abandoned in favor of a canonical chain.

Most of the time, Wall continued, bitcoin’s lack of consistency isn’t a big deal. The network “does have eventual consistency,” he said, “which comes from the fact that the forks resolve themselves automatically after a short while.”

He added, “So while Bitcoin is not a true CAP system, it’s practically as good as one.”

Then again, certain incidents have shown that favoring availability over consistency can get blockchains into trouble. Steemit’s Scott pointed to an incident in March 2013, when bitcoin forked in what Vitalik Buterin – then a journalist – called “one of the most serious hiccups that we have seen in the past four years.”

Echoing that, Wall suggested that such incidents may be an argument for consistency-favoring “CP” systems over accessibility-favoring “AP” ones:

“Two conflicting forks are a much bigger danger to the network than a single halted one.”

Showing off scars

What might seem notable here, though, is that bitcoin hasn’t suffered a similar incident since 2013, while younger networks continue to experience “hiccups.”

“The reason why these bugs have been more prevalent in federated systems than in PoW-based systems recently boils down to the fact that the Bitcoin codebase is more battle-tested, more stringently vetted and of superior quality than its federated counterparts,” Wall said.

Indeed, when the oldest dPOS blockchain, Bitshares, launched in 2015, bitcoin had already been live for more than six years.

But the younger networks might well catch up. “Steem is now a very battle-hardened blockchain,” Scott said following the recent outage.

“I don’t look back and say there weren’t bumps in the road,” he continued. “I look at those bumps and bruises as testament to our strength and resilience and our drive for innovation.”

Steem still plans to go ahead with the planned hard fork update – its 20th – on September 25.

It is also notable that, grizzled veteran though it may be, bitcoin narrowly avoided terrible consequences from a severe bug discovered this week, which could potentially have taken down large swathes of the network for a relatively low cost.

Speaking to this, Zooko Wilcox, founder and CEO of the Zcash company (zcash, like bitcoin, is a proof-of-work cryptocurrency), told CoinDesk that at the end of the day, no network is perfectly safe.

He concluded:

“There is a risk of software failures taking down any software system, including any blockchain such as Bitcoin, Ethereum or Zcash.”

Light image by Artur Matosyan on Unsplash

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups.

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Final Drive Motors: An Essential Guide for Optimal Performance



Final Drive Motors

Final drive motors are pivotal components in the machinery world, powering a wide array of equipment from excavators and bulldozers to heavy-duty vehicles. These motors are the backbone of any machine, providing the necessary torque and speed control to execute tasks efficiently. Understanding their operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting is crucial for maximizing performance and extending the lifespan of your machinery.

Understanding the Mechanics of Final Drive Motors

Final drive motors are designed to convert hydraulic power into mechanical energy, which in turn drives the wheels or tracks of heavy machinery. They are composed of a hydraulic motor and a reduction gearbox, working in tandem to reduce high-speed, low-torque hydraulic flow into low-speed, high-torque mechanical power. This process is essential for the heavy lifting, digging, and pushing operations that such machinery is tasked with.

Key Components and Their Functions

  • Hydraulic Motor: Acts as the initial receiver of hydraulic energy, converting it into rotational force.
  • Reduction Gearbox: Decreases the rotational speed while simultaneously increasing the torque.
  • Sprocket: Transfers the mechanical energy to the tracks or wheels, propelling the machine forward or backward.

Selecting the Right Final Drive Motor for Your Machinery

Choosing the correct final drive motor involves understanding your machinery’s requirements, including weight, load capacity, and the specific tasks it will perform. Factors such as the motor’s torque output, speed specifications, and compatibility with your machinery’s hydraulic system are critical in making an informed decision.

Compatibility and Installation

Ensuring your final drive motor is compatible with your machine’s make and model is paramount. Incorrect installation or incompatible parts can lead to inefficient operation, increased wear, and potential failure. Professional installation and calibration are recommended to achieve optimal performance and longevity.

Maintenance Tips for Long-Lasting Performance

Regular maintenance is key to extending the life of your final drive motor. This includes:

  • Routine Inspections: Regular checks for leaks, wear, and damage can prevent minor issues from becoming major problems.
  • Oil Changes: Changing the hydraulic fluid and filter as recommended by the manufacturer helps maintain hydraulic integrity and performance.
  • Cleaning: Keeping the motor and its components clean from dirt and debris prevents overheating and wear.

Troubleshooting Common Issues

Even with meticulous maintenance, final drive motors can encounter problems. Recognizing and addressing common issues promptly can save time and resources.


Hydraulic fluid leaks are a frequent issue, often indicating worn seals or gaskets. Immediate attention is required to prevent further damage.


Unusual noises may signify internal wear or damage. A thorough inspection can identify the cause, whether it’s bearing failure or gear wear.

Reduced Performance

A drop in performance could be due to various factors, including hydraulic system issues, motor damage, or mechanical wear. Professional diagnostics are necessary to pinpoint and resolve the underlying cause.

The Future of Final Drive Motors

Advancements in technology are continuously shaping the development of final drive motors. Innovations in materials, design, and hydraulic systems are improving their efficiency, durability, and environmental impact. Staying informed about these advancements can help you make better decisions for your machinery and operations.


Final drive motors are indispensable components of heavy machinery, offering the power and control needed for various operations. Understanding their mechanics, ensuring proper selection and installation, and committing to regular maintenance can significantly enhance their performance and lifespan. By addressing any issues promptly and keeping abreast of technological advancements, machinery owners can ensure their equipment remains reliable and efficient for years to come.

Also check these: Best Final Drive Motor Suppliers

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Rejuvenate CBD Gummies: Unlocking Natural Healing for Optimal Wellness



Rejuvenate CBD Gummies: Natural Solution for Health and Wellness

In a society where stress, pain, and a variety of health conditions are common, the search for a remedy that is both natural and effective becomes of the utmost importance. The Rejuvenate CBD Gummies have established themselves as a game-changing product by providing a novel strategy for maximizing one’s state of wellness. In this piece, we will go deeper into the extraordinary benefits and possibilities of Rejuvenate CBD Gummies, putting light on how they can alter your health and well-being. Rejuvenate CBD Gummies are a delicious way to get your daily dose of cannabidiol (CBD). Get ready to discover the hidden potential of natural remedies!

The Science Behind Rejuvenate CBD Gummies

Cannabidiol (CBD), a naturally occurring chemical that is present in the hemp plant, was used in the formulation of Rejuvenate CBD Gummies. CBD has been shown to have an effect on the endocannabinoid system, also known as the ECS. The ECS is a complex network of receptors that regulates a variety of human functions, including sleep, mood, the perception of pain, and immunological response. CBD has been shown to interact with the ECS. Rejuvenate CBD Gummies work to restore balance and harmony throughout the body by focusing on the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

A Holistic Approach to Wellness

In contrast to conventional pharmaceuticals, which frequently focus on treating a single problem at a time, the comprehensive approach to wellbeing offered by Rejuvenate CBD Gummies. These gummies address numerous facets of health at the same time, so improving total health rather than merely relieving specific symptoms. These gummies act in concert to bring relief from a wide range of symptoms, from bodily aches and pains to mental strain and anxiety.

Natural Ingredients, Powerful Results

The natural components used in the production of Rejuvenate CBD Gummies are chosen with great care to ensure the product’s high level of purity and efficacy. The following are some of the major components:

  1. Full-Spectrum Hemp Extract: This extract comes from hemp that was cultivated organically and is abundant in CBD as well as other cannabinoids that are good to the body. It is associated with a wide variety of health advantages, such as the alleviation of pain, the decrease of stress, and the promotion of general wellness.
  2. Terpenes and Flavonoids: These naturally occurring chemicals are important contributors to the entourage effect, which boosts the efficacy of CBD. They complement one another to increase the therapeutic capacity of the Rejuvenate CBD Gummies, which in turn results in a greater number of benefits.
  3. Natural Fruit Extracts: Natural fruit extracts are used in the production of Rejuvenate CBD Gummies, which allows for an explosion of scrumptious flavor. This assures that every bite will be a lovely and pleasurable experience for the consumer.

The Benefits of Rejuvenate CBD Gummies

  1. Pain Relief and Inflammation Reduction: CBD has been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties, making Rejuvenate CBD Gummies an excellent choice for managing chronic pain, arthritis, and other inflammatory conditions.
  2. Stress and Anxiety Management: By interacting with receptors in the brain linked to mood regulation, CBD helps alleviate stress and anxiety. Rejuvenate CBD Gummies can promote a sense of calmness and relaxation, supporting mental well-being.
  3. Improved Sleep Quality: Many individuals struggle with sleep issues, whether it’s difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep throughout the night. Rejuvenate CBD Gummies can help regulate sleep patterns, promoting restful and rejuvenating sleep.
  4. Enhanced Focus and Clarity: CBD’s ability to interact with neurotransmitters can improve cognitive function, focus, and mental clarity. Rejuvenate CBD Gummies can support optimal brain performance, aiding in concentration and productivity.
  5. Immune System Support: CBD has demonstrated promise as an immune system booster, one that can assist the body in protecting itself against infectious agents and in preserving overall health. You may find that including Rejuvenate CBD Gummies into your existing wellness routine is beneficial.

Choosing Rejuvenate CBD Gummies for Your Wellness Journey

It is absolutely necessary to place a high level of importance on quality and openness while selecting Rejuvenate CBD Gummies. Look for goods that come from trustworthy producers, have been tested in an independent lab to ensure their potency and purity, and include information that is understandable regarding the amount of CBD they contain. In addition, take into consideration your unique requirements and discuss the matter with a qualified medical practitioner in order to establish the proper dosage and use.

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Cozy and Chic: Stylish Faux Fur Options for Your Winter Wardrobe and Home Decor



Faux Fur For Home

Faux fur is not just limited to clothing, it can also be incorporated into home decor and accessories. Faux fur accents like hats, pillows, throws, and scarves are perfect for adding a touch of glamour and sophistication to any outfit or home. This article explores the variety of faux fur options available for home and accessory decor, including faux fur hats, pillows, throws, scarves, and shawls.

Faux Fur Hats

Faux fur hats are a stylish and cozy accessory that provides warmth and glamour to any winter outfit. These hats come in a range of styles and colors, including pom-pom beanies, trapper hats, and berets. The options available are perfect for adding a touch of luxury to your winter wardrobe. Faux fur hats are also a great alternative to real fur, making them a popular and ethical choice for fashion lovers.

For a casual and chic look, pairing a faux fur hat with a sweater and jeans creates a relaxed yet stylish outfit. A classic pom-pom beanie in a neutral color pairs well with a chunky knit sweater and high-waisted jeans. For a more formal and elegant look, pairing a faux fur hat with a wool coat and boots creates a winter wonderland look. A trapper hat with a faux fur lining adds an element of luxury to a wool coat and tall boots, making it perfect for a formal event or a night out. Faux fur hats are a must-have for any winter wardrobe, providing warmth and style to any outfit.

Faux Fur Pillows

Faux fur pillows are a stylish and cozy addition to any home decor. These pillows come in various sizes and colors, ranging from classic neutral tones to bold and bright hues. Faux fur pillows are perfect for adding texture and warmth to your living room or bedroom. They provide an element of luxury to any space and make a great alternative to real fur pillows.

Adding faux fur pillows to your couch is an easy way to create a stylish and cozy atmosphere. Neutral tones like beige or white create a relaxed and calming vibe, while bold colors like pink or blue add a pop of color and excitement to the room. Mixing and matching different colors and sizes of faux fur pillows can also add a playful and eclectic touch to your decor. Adding faux fur pillows to your bedding creates a cozy and stylish look that is perfect for the winter months. A few faux fur pillows in a complementary color to your bedding can add an element of luxury and glamour to your bedroom. Faux fur pillows provide endless possibilities to create a stylish and cozy home, making it a must-have for any home decor enthusiast.

Faux Fur Throws

Faux fur throws are a great way to add some luxury and warmth to any room in your home. They come in various sizes and colors, ranging from classic neutral tones to bold and bright hues. Faux fur throws are perfect for adding an element of glamour to your living room or bedroom. They provide an easy way to add texture and warmth to your decor without overwhelming the space.

Adding a faux fur throw to your couch creates a cozy and stylish look that is perfect for the winter months. Drape a neutral-toned faux fur throw over your couch to add an element of luxury to your living room. Or, add a bold and bright-colored faux fur throw to make a statement and add some excitement to the space. Faux fur throws are also a great addition to your bedding. Add a faux fur throw in a complementary color to your bedding to create a cozy and stylish look. The soft and warm texture of the faux fur adds an element of comfort and luxury to your bed. Faux fur throws are a must-have for any home decor enthusiast looking to add a touch of glamour and warmth to their space.

Faux Fur Scarves

Faux fur scarves are a stylish and practical accessory that is perfect for adding some glamour and warmth to any winter outfit. These scarves come in a range of styles and colors, including infinity, snood, and wrap-around scarves. The options available are perfect for adding a touch of luxury to your winter wardrobe while keeping you warm and comfortable. Faux fur scarves are also a great alternative to real fur, making them a popular and ethical choice for fashion lovers.

For a casual and trendy look, pairing a faux fur scarf with a denim jacket and leggings creates a stylish and effortless outfit. A classic snood scarf in a neutral color pairs well with a denim jacket and black leggings for a casual and chic look. For a more formal and elegant look, pairing a faux fur scarf with a little black dress and heels creates a sophisticated and timeless look. A wrap-around scarf with a faux fur lining adds an element of luxury to a little black dress and high heels, making it perfect for a formal event or a night out. Faux fur scarves are a must-have for any winter wardrobe, providing warmth and style to any outfit.

Faux Fur Shawls

Faux fur shawls are a perfect way to add some warmth and style to your winter outfit. These shawls come in various sizes and colors, ranging from classic neutral tones to bold and bright hues. Faux fur shawls are perfect for adding an element of glamour to your winter wardrobe. They provide an easy way to add texture and warmth to your outfit without overwhelming the space.

Layering a faux fur shawl over your winter coat is a great way to add some extra warmth and style to your winter outfit. Drape a neutral-toned faux fur shawl over your coat to add an element of luxury to your winter outerwear. Or, add a bold and bright-colored faux fur shawl to make a statement and add some excitement to your outfit. Faux fur shawls are also a great accessory for a night out. Wear your faux fur shawl over your shoulders as a stylish accessory that adds an element of sophistication to your outfit. A wrap-around shawl with a faux fur lining is a great way to add an extra layer of warmth and glamour to your night out look. Faux fur shawls are a must-have for any fashion lover looking to add some glamour and warmth to their winter wardrobe.


Faux fur accents like hats, pillows, throws, scarves, and shawls are a great way to add some glamour and sophistication to your home and accessory decor. Whether you are dressing up or dressing down, there’s a faux fur option for every occasion. So, add some faux fur flair to your winter wardrobe and home decor for a cozy and stylish look.

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