Connect with us

News

When Blockchains Go Down: Why Crypto Outages Are on the Rise

Published

on

Berniesanders (not to be confused with former presidential candidate and Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders) is an institution on blockchain-based blogging platform Steemit.

Steemit allows content creators to earn crypto – at least, crypto that’s native to the Steem blockchain, of which there are three – for popular posts. While recent successes include waffle recipes, romantic fiction and crypto punditry, berniesanders gets a pretty steady paycheck (about $30 at a time) for his single sentence, self-described “shit posts.”

A recent sampling: “Are you having fun? I’m having fun.” ($60), “I’m on a boat!” ($31), “Show me your shoes.” ($30) and “How many comments can a shit post get?” ($263 and 319 comments).

But for a few hours on September 17, the Steemit community was deprived of berniesanders’ wisdom.

On that day, Steemit became unavailable when Steem suffered an outage and stopped adding new blocks. The blockchain and the apps on top of it had gone dark.

Steem’s outage, the company explained, was related to an upcoming hard fork update. The code for the fork was being run by some nodes in advance, and as such, these nodes split off onto an incompatible chain when certain safeguards failed. The nodes accidentally hard forked the network early, and as a result, the nodes couldn’t come to consensus on new blocks.

“The blockchain was the piece that was halted in this case,” Ned Scott, the founder and CEO of Steemit, told CoinDesk. “But it caused a ripple effect, a domino effect on all the apps built on top.”

For the Steem blockchain, that’s 400 applications, according to Scott.

And several of those applications likely had confused, worried and sometimes angry users wondering why they couldn’t interact with their favorite blockchain-based tools. Case in point, once the Steemit network began functioning normally again, berniesanders returned with a post tagged “testingshitsteem,” “amateurshitdevs” and “deadchain.”

That’s perhaps a bit harsh.

Sure enough, other users weren’t quite so critical. A Steemit user going by “alphasteem” (she of the waffle recipes) said:

“I guess that’s the way things work with new technology.”

The only problem is, that’s not how things are supposed to work with this particular piece of new technology. One of the most frequently cited advantages of blockchain networks is that they suffer zero downtime – or close to it.

For example, there’s a website dedicated to tracking bitcoin’s uptime since its launch in January 2009: 99.992559576 percent, at the time of writing. And the Ethereum Foundation describes the network’s applications as running “exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third-party interference.”

In recent months, though, major blockchain networks have seen downtime, and the trend has some people wondering, WTF?

More outages

The incident on the Steem network is not the only recent example of a blockchain going down (in fact, it’s not the only time Steem has gone down in recent months).

In March, Neo’s blockchain was temporarily halted. This can happen, the project’s senior research and development manager Malcolm Lerider initially explained, “when a consensus node gets disconnected during the consensus.”

In response to pointed criticism – to the effect that, if just one of only seven consensus nodes on the Neo network can pause the chain by going offline, Neo is highly vulnerable – Lerider stepped that response back a bit. He said Neo could handle the loss of a consensus node, and that the circumstances leading to the incident were more complicated.

A few months later, the EOS blockchain also saw the production of new blocks halted for nearly five hours.

According to Thomas Cox, who at that time was the vice president of product at Block.One, the company behind the EOS protocol (he’s since left the company), the deferred transactions weren’t being checked correctly, which led to a “weird state” and “prevented further blocks from being created.”

This incident occurred just a couple of days after the EOS network went live in June.

Federated and delegated

These examples raise the question of why, nearly a decade into the existence of blockchains, the promise of zero downtime is starting to show cracks.

The answer may have to do with the emergence of new ways of achieving consensus: the process by which all the participants in a blockchain system come to agreement on the state of the network.

In bitcoin, ethereum and other proof-of-work (PoW) systems, the way consensus is achieved makes it extremely unlikely that a network will come to a halt – even if a high number of nodes drop off.

Speaking to this, Riccardo Spagni, project lead at monero (a proof-of-work cryptocurrency), told CoinDesk:

“PoW can handle things like the network partitioning and coming back together after some time. It’s incredibly robust.”

In contrast, a newer method – versions of which Neo, EOS and Steem all employ – designates a certain set of specialized nodes to determine the state of the network. Rather than “mining,” these nodes come to agreement through quicker and less energy-intensive processes, enabling faster and cheaper transactions than bitcoin or ethereum.

These systems are broadly known as federated or delegated protocols, with more specific labels applying based on the exact cryptographic methods involved: delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance (dBFT) for Neo and delegated proof-of -stake (DPoS) for EOS and Steem.

Neo’s Lerider disputed the idea that federated blockchains are more susceptible to downtime in general. “Different consensus algorithms may be used in a federated chain,” he told CoinDesk, and “to know which ones that have potential to go down,” it’s necessary to look at the specific implementation.

Broadly, though, delegated consensus has brought something new to cryptocurrency: the potential to scale enough to accommodate use cases that only centralized providers were previously able to handle. For instance, Steem and EOS can support millions of transactions per day, according to the website Block’tivity.

Yet, at the same time, these new protocols have reintroduced a foible of centralized providers to the world of blockchain: downtime. When key nodes in a federated system go down or fall out of sync, the entire network can grind to a halt.

Accessibility or consistency?

That’s not to say these systems are necessarily inferior to traditional proof-of-work, however.

There is an important tradeoff at work, according to Eric Wall, blockchain and cryptocurrency lead at the Swedish fintech firm Cinnober.

“All distributed systems are fundamentally limited by the CAP theorem,” he told CoinDesk.

According to this theorem, which is often cited in discussions of blockchain networks, a given system can only optimize for two of three characteristics: consistency, availability and partition tolerance (hence the acronym “CAP”).

Although, in reality, the range of choices is narrower. Partition tolerance – the ability to run a blockchain over a network that loses some messages, as the internet does – is “non-negotiable,” said Wall. So engineers can either favor accessibility, as in bitcoin and ethereum; or favor consistency, as in EOS, Steem and Neo.

Wall described what these options look like in practical terms, saying, “Many federated systems will simply halt in contingency situations, often requiring manual intervention to start running again. Bitcoin, on the other hand, will typically not halt, but instead bitcoin forks into two blockchains for a short period of time a couple of times a month.”

In other words, from the user’s perspective, the bitcoin network may never go down, but there’s no guarantee that a user hasn’t found themselves on a fork that will eventually be abandoned in favor of a canonical chain.

Most of the time, Wall continued, bitcoin’s lack of consistency isn’t a big deal. The network “does have eventual consistency,” he said, “which comes from the fact that the forks resolve themselves automatically after a short while.”

He added, “So while Bitcoin is not a true CAP system, it’s practically as good as one.”

Then again, certain incidents have shown that favoring availability over consistency can get blockchains into trouble. Steemit’s Scott pointed to an incident in March 2013, when bitcoin forked in what Vitalik Buterin – then a journalist – called “one of the most serious hiccups that we have seen in the past four years.”

Echoing that, Wall suggested that such incidents may be an argument for consistency-favoring “CP” systems over accessibility-favoring “AP” ones:

“Two conflicting forks are a much bigger danger to the network than a single halted one.”

Showing off scars

What might seem notable here, though, is that bitcoin hasn’t suffered a similar incident since 2013, while younger networks continue to experience “hiccups.”

“The reason why these bugs have been more prevalent in federated systems than in PoW-based systems recently boils down to the fact that the Bitcoin codebase is more battle-tested, more stringently vetted and of superior quality than its federated counterparts,” Wall said.

Indeed, when the oldest dPOS blockchain, Bitshares, launched in 2015, bitcoin had already been live for more than six years.

But the younger networks might well catch up. “Steem is now a very battle-hardened blockchain,” Scott said following the recent outage.

“I don’t look back and say there weren’t bumps in the road,” he continued. “I look at those bumps and bruises as testament to our strength and resilience and our drive for innovation.”

Steem still plans to go ahead with the planned hard fork update – its 20th – on September 25.

It is also notable that, grizzled veteran though it may be, bitcoin narrowly avoided terrible consequences from a severe bug discovered this week, which could potentially have taken down large swathes of the network for a relatively low cost.

Speaking to this, Zooko Wilcox, founder and CEO of the Zcash company (zcash, like bitcoin, is a proof-of-work cryptocurrency), told CoinDesk that at the end of the day, no network is perfectly safe.

He concluded:

“There is a risk of software failures taking down any software system, including any blockchain such as Bitcoin, Ethereum or Zcash.”

Light image by Artur Matosyan on Unsplash

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups.

Continue Reading

News

How to Choose the Right Hurricane Lawyer for Your Case

Published

on

Hurricane Lawyer

A hurricane can cause a lot of damage. If you are affected by a hurricane, you may need to hire a hurricane lawyer. Not all lawyers are created equal, so it is important to choose the right one for your case. In this blog post, we will discuss how to choose the right hurricane lawyer for your needs.

What to look for when choosing a hurricane lawyer?

Choosing the right hurricane lawyer is no easy task, but it is important to make sure you have one that knows the ins and outs of Hurricane incidents in order to get the best outcome. Make sure they have experience with similar cases and that they are familiar with the laws surrounding your particular situation. It’s also wise to do some background digging on any potential lawyers, checking into reviews and the reputation of their firm if possible. Lastly, pick a lawyer who you feel comfortable with – someone whose approach jives with yours and who comes off as motivated and enthusiastic about taking on your case. Remember, there’s no guarantee of success, but you want to increase your chances by making sure your hurricane lawyer has all bases covered!

How to know if you need a hurricane lawyer?

If you live in a hurricane-prone area and have been affected by a storm, you may need the help of a hurricane lawyer. The most obvious indicator is if your home (or any other property) was severely damaged during the storm, as these situations can become complex very quickly. Other indicators include whether you’re having trouble accessing insurance benefits or feeling overwhelmed by paperwork.

In any of those cases, it might be wise to consult a hurricane lawyer who has experience navigating these types of issues. You won’t know for sure until you talk to one – so why not get ahead of the game?

What to expect when working with a hurricane lawyer?

Working with a hurricane lawyer may feel intimidating, but the reality is that many of them are passionate professionals who are determined to help people navigate the legal challenges that can arise from natural disasters.

They can provide you with an honest assessment of your situation, and can advise on what steps should be taken to secure any compensation or damages owed to you as quickly as possible.

Having a knowledgeable lawyer by your side will ensure that all legal documents involved in the hurricane claim process are filled out correctly and efficiently. Plus, they’ll do all the legwork for you so that you can simply focus on recovering and getting your life back in order!

Questions to ask your hurricane lawyer

As hurricane season comes up and the weather starts getting wild, it’s important to know your rights in these uncertain times. That’s why enlisting the help of a professional hurricane lawyer is essential.

When looking for one, some questions worth asking are:

  • Do you have experience in this area?
  • What advice would you give following a major storm?
  • What processes do you use to ensure accuracy and justice?

How much does a hurricane lawyer cost?

For many people, the thought of needing a hurricane lawyer may bring to mind some unseemly Hollywood depictions of a stuffy and overpriced attorney, but you should know that it doesn’t have to be that way.

The truth is, the cost for legal help with hurricane claims depends on a variety of factors like the complexity of your case and the experience and reputability of your lawyer.

Many legal professionals charge reasonable fees—it might even seem like they took one look at the weather forecast and adjusted their costs accordingly!

Finding experienced help if you’re facing damage or claims resulting from a major storm isn’t difficult (or outrageously pricey), so don’t be afraid to seek out professional guidance when it comes to this kind of situation.

Conclusion

Picking the right hurricane lawyer is hard – but luckily, we’re here to help. With our experienced and dedicated team, we’ll make sure you get the best possible outcome for your case.

Still need help finding best hurricane lawyers? Check out this helpful article: Best Hurricane Lawyers in Florida

Continue Reading

News

How To Choose The Right Outdoor patio Furniture?

Published

on

Outdoor Patio Furniture

A complete home is signified by their indoor and outdoor living space in some cases. How you enjoy the moments of good weather with other individuals in the organic settings adds to the experience of a well established living space. This can encompass holiday parties, BBQ’s, family reunions etc. Now choosing the right Outdoor patio furniture so you can be the center of all the attention will require you to have a bit of common knowledge under your belt.

In this article we will be covering just that and more so that you are fully equipped to begin your search for the right outdoor patio furniture for your home.

Why Should You Create An Outdoor Patio

There are many reasons as to why a homeowner should look to cultivate their outdoor patio living space. One of the seasons being that it will substantially increase the value of your home. On average most homeowners are able to sell their homes at a 10% increase with outdoor patio furnishings added to their living space.

Moreover, cultivating a backyard oasis is the perfect strategy to become a host for any kind of social gatherings and events. Birthdays, Holiday occasions, or random get togethers are included in these gatherings. It can prove to be a cheaper alternative to going out to bars or clubs and with menial risks in play as well.

How To Cultivate Your Outdoor Living Space

First and foremost, you must take into consideration the physical amount of space that you have in your outdoor area. You will need to leave room so you can easily move around the furniture, pull out chairs, or recline seats back fully. If you have a small porch, you may not be able to fit a full outdoor dining set and will need to compromise on a smaller piece of furniture.

In order to begin furnishing your outdoor living space what you will primarily want to focus on is the space that you have to work with. Take a full measurement of the space you’d like to furnish.
This can help you in the planning or pre planning phase of where you’d like to set up your furniture pieces and ultimately make the process less of a trial and error venture.

You will need 2 different kinds of measurements to depict an accurate sizing of your outdoor living space:

  • Find the square footage of your deck or yard by finding its length x width of the area.
  • Find the surface area of your space by sectioning off the space if it is not a perfect square or rectangle and calculate the square footage of each individual section.
  • Finding the surface area in this regard can help you visualize what pieces of furniture can fit into each section of the outdoor space.

Property Ownership

Depending on whether or not you are the homeowner of your living space can also play a part in what furniture types you use to furnish your patio with.

In most cases where an individual is renting a property it may not be the most ideal solution to furnish their outdoor space with dubious amounts of heavy or large types of furniture. This can potentially be a considerable obstacle if and when the renter decides to move to another home location.

In this situation an alternative would be utilizing smaller or lightweight furniture to furnish this space to minimize the inconvenience of moving the furniture when that day arrives.

Another obstacle some renters face is whether or not certain furniture types and colors are allowed to be used to decorate a living space. There are some landlords who provide restrictions on certain aesthetics in open and visible spaces to protect the integral design of the property as a whole.

On the other hand if you are the owner of your living space then you automatically have many more options as to how you want your outdoor space to be designed. You would essentially have the final say in the type of coloring and furniture types you use to decorate with.

Plan For The Weather

Before furnishing your outdoor living space it is vital that you plan for the weather or climate. Weather plays a big part in determining how long your furniture lasts outside under the sun so it is best to keep an eye open for certain materials that thrive in your weather conditions.

Buying the wrong type of furniture in this case can increase the rate of weathering and deterioration for your furniture so it is best not to sweep this aspect of patio planning under the rug.

For instance for those who find themselves living next to the ocean or other large bodies of water it is best to abstain from furnishing your patio with metal furniture types they are more prone to rust. An alternative for this setting would be to go for synthetic materials or coated wood types of furniture to counteract water damage.

In windier climates it is best to use heavier types of furnishings to avoid your pieces being moved around the space due to the strong winds.

In climates of regular heat, owners should look for furniture types that have lighter hues to avoid attracting the sunlight which will inevitably make the piece too hot to sit on. Lighter colors will also counteract the color fading qualities of too much sunlight that typically occurs in darker and vibrant colors.

Canopies and umbrellas can be put into the setting to counteract the effects of the sunlight but moreover you can opt in for wooden materials as metal and synthetic materials typically tend to get a lot hotter.

Cold Climates

Cold weather also works in deteriorating the materials used in your outdoor patio furniture. Wood can crack when the spring heat rolls back in after being too cold for months and other materials can freeze over to be too cold to sit on.

It is suggested that in periods of extreme cold weather a homeowner properly stores their furniture properly or uses a furniture covering to counteract the cold.

Precipitation

Rain can be the most active factor that deteriorates your outdoor patio furniture. In wooden types of furniture rain will work to soften its structure and in metal the rain will prompt the progress of rust to occur.

In climates where rain is common it is suggested to use synthetic resin built furniture pieces as these are essentially immune to the weathering effects of rain. Moreover, synthetic resin dries incredibly faster than wood or metal frameworks.

Furniture Covers are the best solution in climates with regular periods of rain to protect your pieces.

Buying On a Budget

To avoid any potential disappointments when you are browsing stores or websites for your outdoor patio furnishings you will need to evaluate your intended budget for this project. Depending on what material is used for an individual piece of furniture or patio set heavily correlates to the pricing of the piece.

Most of the time they can be a bit pricey, especially the flashier ones. But all is not lost. There are plenty of classy and beautiful alternatives to giving up an arm and a leg for the teak sofa.
As with most types of furniture, higher quality materials tend to come at a higher price.

Allow yourself to slowly build your dream patio over time. Resist the temptation to go all out at once for a set as this can significantly benefit your funds. Opt- in for the one piece at a time to save yourself a bit of buying power.

Best Season To Purchase Outdoor Furniture

When you are looking for furniture pieces or sets at a discounted price you will want to wait for seasonal offers to occur after the fact. The season in reference is typically after the summer towards the beginning of autumn. In this part of the year deals and discounts are ramped through the industry and you will likely find mahogany furniture at much more affordable price options.

However, if you want the best variety of options, start shopping towards the end of winter. This is usually when stores are getting in their latest shipments for the upcoming designs for spring and summer.

For the most ideal rates and discounts shop for furniture pieces directly after the winter. These dramatic price drops are typically due to distributors receiving their new shipments for the upcoming season and will need to sell off the leftovers from last year to make inventory space as quickly as possible.

Conclusion

Cultivating your home’s outdoor patio setting can be an exciting and very rewarding experience for you and family. It represents the awesome future possibilities of endless game nights, BBQ’s and other social gathering experiences that just adds a bit more flavor to your life as a whole. We hope this article has aided you in the buying process of what materials to look out for and when to shop the market for your furniture pieces.

Also Read: Is white outdoor furniture a bad idea?

Continue Reading

News

Is white outdoor furniture a bad idea? 

Published

on

black and white outdoor furniture

With more and more homeowners looking to enter the outdoor patio furniture scene. Many of these individuals are looking to furnish their outdoor living space with only the best of the best-looking furniture and color schemes. “What color sets look best on my outdoor patio?” “What material furniture should I purchase if I want to leave my furniture under the elements?” What’s in style and what’s out of style, seems to be on the forefront of any homeowner’s mind regarding how they decorate their outside patio. Well, wonder no more folks. We’ve got a scoop on some pretty simple tips you should look out for when purchasing your outdoor patio furniture.

Below we have tackled some of the most popular questions on soon-to-be outdoor patio owners, let’s get right into it.

Should I Mix & Match Materials In My Furniture Look?

Well the short answer, without a doubt you should. Many people look for a Diverse selection of furniture materials to give their outdoor living space more of a pop in the eye and an overall ensemble-esque look. Think of it as an orchestra, you have a mixture of different stimulations from the low end, the cellos and bass, and from the high end, you have the viola and violin. All of these different frequencies make a beautiful sound or in this case a look.

A mixture of wooden material can go with kinds of dark metal and vice versa, the options are almost unlimited with how many different combinations a homeowner can come up with to decorate their outdoor living space, so get creative, you’ve got plenty of options.

How Can You Mix And Match Your Furniture’s Look?

Well first note there is no right way to create a piece of art, think of your outdoor patio furniture as a reflection of the homeowner’s style. Do what compliments your taste for starters. Enable yourself to grab the passion of creating what not only you and your family but others will enjoy but others too!

While you are gaining the passion for creating your own unique outdoor patio style, here are a few pointers when making sure your patio is up to the latest beauty standards. There are a few things to mix and match up that are scientifically proven to be captivating to the eye. These designs incorporate different aspects of the outdoor patio furniture look including the throw pillow, to the materials of the furniture themselves, and even the rugs underneath, or the drapes or ceiling fans above.

There are quite a few factors that go into making a good set of outdoor furniture but don’t let that deter you. Introducing the “Rule of Three”, this popular piece of design lingo is widely known within the industry. The rule of three states that if one thing is repeated three times then there is a neural connection in the human brain that recognizes a group.

This is one of the more widely accepted methods of mixing and matching. One section of your ensemble contains three either same colored or same material built items, and then the next section, and so on. This can create a unique look of passion and effort along with order and class. Sometimes the uniform look can just get a little boring if everything were to be blended in with one another.

Arrange By Construction Material

Mix And Match Based Off Of Materials

This is where the fun part happens. The pride and joy of any outdoor patio furniture is well the furniture. To be a bit more specific the type of furniture present in the outdoor patio ensemble. It is a good point to remember the rule of three when mixing and matching your materials. You can have a section dedicated to darkness and this could be the frames and pillows etc. you have complete freedom to get inspired.

An outdoor favorite consists of lighter hues to get the job done, yet those who regularly get together outside in the evening could go for a more autumn theme.

Arrange By Layout

Let’s say you have two furniture sets made from two different materials – one set is wicker, and the other is metal. Instead of mixing the two sets up, you can separate them into two physically distinct areas. Maybe the wicker will be for deep seating and the metal for dining.

Design Your Layout

For some homeowners, the outdoor patio furniture consists of multiple sections like a lounge area and an area to eat. If this sounds like your patio you can arrange your patio furniture by layout. In one section you have a certain material that could be wood, or metal, with the same or complimenting hues, and another section containing the same theme yet a different look altogether encompassing the material furniture type and color schemes.

In this outdoor patio furniture style, it can feel like an adventure. It can create the sense of reading a book even when you and your guests are moving on into a different section of the homeowner’s patio; it could resemble reading a different page of the same book.

The idea is to create two physically separated groups, so that the difference in style won’t be so obvious.

Use rugs to create a separation of the two groupings or planters. Or, create separate areas with statuary or hanging ornaments. Sure, you’ll probably still be able to see both groupings at once, so use color to unify them.

To boost that illustration further there could be a separator between the two sections. A sculpture, different levels of elevation, agriculture, pools, the list could go on. Yet even going as far as to make the separator, whatever may be part of the design should also be included. In this scenario, you could have a section dedicated to black colors and dark wood or metal furniture, a dark gray separator, and a completely different section of white outdoor patio furniture. The options are really endless.

While we’re here let’s address a quick subject.

Is Outdoor White Furniture A Bad Idea?

This is an interesting question because with the endless combinations of mixing and matching available to the homeowner there wouldn’t ever be a reason to say that white furniture is a bad idea. Not a reason in design that is. In Practicality, it does carry a bit more substance.

So, is white outdoor furniture a bad idea?

Short answer: yes.

Long answer: Yes, however! There are multiple things that can lead to a homeowner getting a headache from their white outdoor furniture. Dirty stains, overbearing heat, and high maintenance to name a few. Yet from a perspective of design and even persistence to keep a white furniture outdoor patio clean this can be absolutely astonishing.

White outdoor patio furniture can carry a lot of risks like stains from spilled drinks. White furniture can be a bad idea outside for practical reasons because if it gets messy well it will take a bit of effort to clean up depending on the material you choose.

The best solution, in this case, would be to incorporate lighter colored hues into the material of the hard furniture itself. For instance, a white marble table and chair with dark-colored fabrics inside and synonymous table garnish could make for a formidable outdoor patio design.

As an added plus the lighter hues of the hard material can generally be a whole lot easier to clean up.

We recommend to any homeowner looking to win the best-looking outdoor patio design in the neighborhood to minimize the white in fabrics as much as you can if you can help with the constant maintenance. If you are fully determined and equipped to get out the possible stains and dirt and dust then go for it, any of the standard’s extreme ranges of the color scale ( blacks and whites ) can really add to the pop and overall class of the setting.

For another, more low-maintenance colors utilize darker hues. These dark hues will make it very hard for dirt and other stains to pop up causing unsightly messes. While blacks may absorb a lot of the temperatures under a harsh beating sun, the hue is low maintenance as it can hide a few accidents here and there, still, tho cleanliness is key to bringing everything together seamlessly.

While there are many options available for future outdoor patio owners, experimentation is key. There are many small enhancements to the setting one can implement to mix and match certain looks. Not all of the pressure is necessarily on what kind of furniture you use.

Designing your outdoor patio can be a thrill of an experience and lots of homeowners love taking the opportunity to express themselves by creating extra space that is homey and will cater for many future gatherings to come. There is not a single right way to design your patio, as long as you don’t hold back on spilling your passion into the project you won’t have a single regret. Happy designing!

Available Outdoor Furniture Sets:

Continue Reading

Trending

Copyright © 2020 StarkJournal
Maintained & Operated by Marketing 180